BC First Nations Studies 12

Prescribed Learning Outcomes / Suggested Achievement Indicators

Land and Relationships

  • B1 Describe the location of the traditional territories of British Columbia First Nations (see map and charts at First Nations of BC)
    • Recognize the cultural and linguistic diversity that exists among First Nations within BC
    • Recognize the existence of varying interpretations regarding the locations of traditional territories (e.g., overlapping boundaries)
    • Name a major First Nations group within each region of BC (i.e., northern interior, e.g. Kaska; coast, e.g. Tsimshian; northeast, e.g. Dunne-Za; southern interior, e.g. Okanagan)
  • B2 Analyse the relationship of First Nations peoples with the natural world
    • Relate the traditional settlement and lifestyle patterns of a local First Nation to the environment (e.g., reasons for the location of villages, nature of foods in the diet, seasonal round)
    • Describe traditional First Nations concepts of land and resource ownership (e.g., “common bowl,” hereditary rights) and cite specific local examples (e.g. "house territories" of the Gitksan)
    • Relate First Nations concepts of land and resource ownership to spiritual aspects of culture (e.g., by explaining the spiritual significance of ceremonies related to resource harvesting and use, by citing pertinent details of creation stories that refer to land and resources)
    • Relate First Nations concepts of land and resource ownership to language and culture (e.g., by creating a map of resources and place names within a local First Nation’s traditional territory and explaining the significance of those names)
    • Identify characteristics of current and traditional First Nations resource use and management practices (e.g., no-waste resource use, as in harvesting of cedar; cultural protocols such as requesting permission to harvest; boundary marking such as cultural modification of trees; stewardship)
  • B4 Analyse the exchanges of ideas, practices, and materials involving First Nations pre-contact and post-contact
    • Describe traditional BC First Nations technologies, including the uses of plants and animals (e.g., Aboriginal fishery)
    • Outline traditional trade patterns that existed among BC First Nations pre-contact, with reference to
      • Ocean, land, and river trade routes (e.g., Grease Trails)
      • Products traded (e.g., oolichan oil, copper, dentalium, soap berries, obsidian, Indian hemp)
      • Diplomacy among First Nations (e.g., the roles of marriage, ceremony, and warfare in resolving conflict)
      • Cultural practices (e.g., songs, dances, names, regalia)
    • Describe the exchange of ideas, practices, and materials between First Nations and other cultures, in historical and contemporary contexts (e.g., “potlatches,” fur trade, technologies, food products, medicines, development of Chinook jargon, replacement of hereditary governance, changes in First Nations settlement and seasonal movement patterns)
    • Contrast European and traditional First Nations concepts of land and resource ownership
    • Assess the benefits and drawbacks of post-contact exchanges of ideas, materials, and practices for BC First Nations

Contact, ColonIalIsm, and ResIstance

  • C2 Assess the economic, social, political, and cultural impacts of contact with Europeans on BC First Nations during the period of the maritime fur trade
  • C3 Assess the economic, social, political, and cultural impacts of contact with Europeans on BC First Nations during the period of the land-based fur trade up to Confederation
    • Describe the main developments in European colonization of British Columbia up to Confederation, including
      • Transition from the maritime fur trade to the land-based fur trade
      • The gold rushes
      • Settlement of boundary issues with the United States
      • Establishment of early European settlements
    • Describe the impacts on First Nations of contact with Europeans in the period of the land-based fur trade, including
      • Economic and political (e.g., growth of the cash economy, changes in First Nations settlement patterns, the Douglas treaties, Joseph Trutch and the development of British colonial policy involving land pre-emption and prohibition of Aboriginal land ownership)
      • Social and demographic (e.g., role of Aboriginal women in the fur trade, shift in family systems, decimation of populations due to disease epidemics)
      • Cultural (e.g., loss of hereditary leaders due to epidemics, increased missionary influence)
      • Ecological and environmental (e.g., decimation of beaver populations)
    • Defend a position with respect to the impact of contact on BC First Nations, using relevant supporting evidence
  • C4 Analyse post-Confederation government policies and jurisdictional arrangements that affected and continue to affect BC First Nations
    • Compare pre-Confederation and post-Confederation government policies toward First Nations with reference to
    • Explain the intent of the following, and their significance for the lives of First Nations people, including their human rights implications:
    • Analyse the division of powers in Canada (federal vs. provincial) and its historical and present-day impact on issues related to First Nations
  • C5 Analyse the varied and evolving responses of First Nations peoples to contact and colonialism
    • Explain the significance of the following as First Nations responses to colonialism:
    • Analyse land issues with reference to key events in First Nations resistance to land encroachment – locally, provincially, and nationally

Cultural Expressions

Leadership and Self-Determination

  • E1 Describe challenges during the 20th century that led to the emergence of contemporary Aboriginal leadership, including reference to
    • Describe contemporary social, economic development, and cultural issues facing First Nations, including
    • Identify historical and contemporary challenges facing Aboriginal women within Aboriginal and Canadian societies, such as
      • Loss of status rights when marrying a “non-native” person (before 1985)
      • Impact of wage labour economy on traditional family structure
      • Loss of children to residential schools
      • Erosion of female parenting role models due to residential schooling
      • Economic disparities between women and men
      • Stereotyping
      • Vulnerability to violence
      • Under-representation in leadership
    • Identify and describe the accomplishments of leaders and organizations that emerged in response to challenges, including
    • Research and present information about the accomplishments of a 20th century or contemporary Aboriginal leader at the local, provincial, or national level
    • Demonstrate awareness of historical and current issues related to the Métis in Canada
  • E3 Analyse contemporary legislation, policies, and events affecting the self-determination of Aboriginal peoples
    • Explain the significance of Supreme Court of Canada decisions for Aboriginal peoples, with reference to key cases, including Calder (1973), Guerin (1984), Sparrow (1990), Delgamuukw (1991), and Van der Peet (1995)
    • Demonstrate an understanding of contemporary negotiations, processes, and agreements pertaining to Aboriginal governance and self-determination, including


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